Articles

IMMUNOMODULATION OF HOUSE FLIES EXPOSED TO AZADIRACHTIN


Abstract


In this study the lethal and sub-lethal effects of azadirachtin on adult house flies, and the main variations in theirimmune-related gene expression levels were detected. Flies acquiring azadirachtin by ingestion showed differentdegrees of susceptibility depending on concentration and time of exposure to this compound, with LC50valuecorresponding to 101.14 µg/ml, after five days of exposure to a dose of 7.5 µl/fly/day. Flies surviving ingestion of sub-lethal concentrations showed significant decrease in their lifespan and reproductive performance, including fecundityand percentage of egg hatching.A significant immune-stimulation effect of lower azadirachtin concentrations (25 µg/ml), and a generalimmunosuppression of most AMPs (i.e. attacin, cecropin, defensin,diptericin and muscin) at higher concentrationlevels (100 µg/ml) were observed. This study highlights the immunodeficiency potential of azadirachtin, providing new insights into understandingthe physiological response of Musca domesticato this botanical compound at the molecular level.

Keywords

Musca domestica, immune system, gene expression, botanical insecticide, immunosuppression.

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