Review papers

A century old regeneration problem of Shorea robusta Gaertn. F. in south Asia: SWOT analysis (Review)


Shorea robusta (Sal) Gaertn. F. a commercially and ecologically important forestry species of south Asia, is facing serious regeneration problem since last century. The continuously diminishing natural regeneration is associated with numerous abiotic and biotic factors, like edaphic, micro-climatic, physiological, genetic, anthropogenic, pathogens, insect-pests, etc. Following a good seed year and timely commencement of monsoon, Sal seeds germinate readily, and thousands of seedlings cover the forest floor. Subsequently, these get afflicted with die-back syndrome impeding shoot growth. Regular fire incidences during hot and dry season further aggravates the problem. Among biotic factors, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis, Cylindrocladium floridanum and Inonotus shoreae causes severe heartwood decay, blight and dieback leading to mortality. Moreover, over-exploitation, illegal felling, grazing, etc., have severely depleted the Sal forest. This review systematically explores the factors contributing to regeneration problem in S. robusta and opines appropriate silvicultural operations and management strategies for the conservation of Sal forests through SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis. We emphasized on the ecological aspects, soil characteristics, micro-climatic factors and importance of associated species to develop sustainable management regimes. Highlighting all facets of Sal regeneration problem and SWOT assessment, we suggest comprehensive weaknesses and threat perceptions to formulate strategies to seal the gaps.


Sal; natural regeneration; south Asia; SWOT analysis; micro-climatic factors.

Full Text:




Acharya K.P., Dangi R.B., Acharya M. 2011 - Understanding forest degradation in Nepal. Unasylva 62 (2): 238.

Adhikari B., Kaptoki B., Lodhiyal N., Lodhiyal L.S. 2017 - Structure and Regeneration of Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn f.) Forests in Shiwalik Region of Kumaun Himalaya, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 40: 1-8.

Agrawal S.C., Choudhary Y.K., Sahu V. 2018 - Indigenous Natural Regeneration Protocol of Sal (Shorea robusta) with Specific Concern to Changing Climate in India Affecting its Distribution and Germination Pattern. Advances in Ecological and Environmental Research: 83-93.

Alam M., Furukawa Y., Sarker S.K., Ahmed R. 2008 - Sustainability of Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in Bangladesh: past, present and future actions. International Forestry Review 10: 29-37. https//

Amam S.A. 1970 - Artificial regeneration technique of Shorea robusta. Forest-Dale News 2 (2): 55-60.

Atluri J.B., Ramana S.V., Reddi C.S. 2004 - Explosive pollen release, wind-pollination and mixed mating in the tropical tree Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. (Dipterocarpaceae). Current Science 86 (10): 1416-1419.

Awasthi N., Bhandari S.K., Khanal Y. 2015 - Does scientific forest management promote plant species diversity and regeneration in Sal (Shorea robusta) forest? A case study from Lumbini collaborative forest, Rupandehi, Nepal. Banko Janakari 25.

Babar S., Amarnath G., Reddy C.S., Jentsch A., Sudhakar S. 2012 - Species distribution models: ecological explanation and prediction of an endemic and endangered plant species (Pterocarpus santalinus L.f.). Current Science 102: 1157–1165. .

Bagchee K. 1953 - The fungal diseases of Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) Part 1. Indian Forester 1(2): 11-23.

Bakshi B.K., 1959. Guide to Foresters in Investigating Forest Diseases. Indian Forester, 85(12): 731-735.

Barker P.C.J., Kirkpatrick J.R. 1994 - Phyllocladus aspleniifolius: variability in population structure, the regeneration niche and dispersion pattern in Tasmanian Forest. Australian Journal of Botany 42: 163-190.

Beeson C.F.C. 1941 - The ecology and control of the forest insects of India and the neighbouring countries. Published by the author and printed at the Vasant Press Dehra Dun India. 1007 p.

Bhandari M.S., Meena R.K., Shankhwar R., Shekhar C., Saxena J., Kant R., Pandey V.V., Barthwal S., Pandey S., Chandra G., Ginwal H.S. 2020 - Prediction Mapping Through Maxent Modeling Paves the Way for the Conservation of Rhododendron arboreum in Uttarakhand Himalayas. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 48 (3): 411-422.

Bhandari R.S., Rawat J.K. 2001 - Sal Heartwood Borer Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newm. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and its Management. Indian Forester 127 (12): 1387-1393.

Bhandari R.S., Singh P. 1988 - Epidemic of Sal Heart-wood Borer Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newm. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and its Control in Pachmari, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Forester 114 (3): 152-157.

Bhatnagar H.P. 1959 - The effect of root competition on the growth of Sal (Shorea robusta) natural regeneration. Indian Forester 85: 408-414.

Bhatnagar H.P. 1960 - Plant communities in some Sal forests of U.P. Indian Forester 86: 139-151.

Bhatnagar H.P. 1965 - Soils from different quality Sal (Shorea robusta) forests of Uttar Pradesh. Tropical Ecology 6: 56-62.

Bhuyan P., Khan M.L., Tripathi R.S. 2003 - Tree diversity and population structure in undisturbed and human-impacted stands of tropical wet evergreen forest in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, India. Biodiversity & Conservation 12 (8): 1753-1773.

Bradie J., Leung B. 2017 - A quantitative synthesis of the importance of variables used in MaxEnt species distribution models. Journal of Biogeography 44 (6): 1344-1361.

Chaubey O.P., Sharma A. 2013. Population structure and regeneration potential of sal (Shorea robusta gaertn. F.) and its associates in sal bearing forests of Satpura Tiger Reserve. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology 5(6): 63-70.

Chaudhari N.R. 1963 - Air layering in Sal (Shorea robusta). Indian Forester 89 (4): 269-271.

Chauhan D.S., Singh B., Chauhan S., Dhanai C.S., Todaria N.P. 2010 - Regeneration and plant diversity of natural and planted Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) forests in the Terai-Bhabhar of Sohagibarwa Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Journal of American Science 6 (3): 32-45.

Chauhan P.S., Manhas R.K., Negi J.D.S. 2001. Demographic and diversity analysis of tree species in Sal (Shorea robusta) forests of Doon Valley. Annals of Forestry 9: 188-198.

Chitale V.S., Behera M.D. 2012 - Can the distribution of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) shift in the northeastern direction in India due to changing climate? Current Science 102 (8).

Chokkalingam U., Shono K., Sarigumba M.P., Durst P.B., Leslie R. (eds.) 2018 - Advancing the role of Natural Regeneration in large scale forest and landscape restoration in Asia-Pacific region. FAO and APFnet, Bangkok.

Coetzee J.H., Middelmann M.C. 1997 - SWOT analysis of the fynbos industry in South Africa with special reference to research. ACTA Horticulturae 453: 145–152.

Deb J.C., Phinn S., Butt N., McAlpine C.A. 2017a - The impact of climate change on the distribution of two threatened Dipterocarp trees. Ecology and evolution 7 (7): 2238-2248.

Deb J.C., Phinn S., Butt N., McAlpine C.A. 2017b - Climatic-induced shifts in the distribution of teak (Tectona grandis) in tropical Asia: implications for forest management and planning. Environmental management 60 (3): 422-435.

Deshpande A. 2015 - Natural Regeneration of Sal (Shorea robusta) in Protected and Unprotected Forests of Kalsi Forest Division, Uttarakhand, India. Research undertaken at the Forest Ecology and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Dey T. K. 1995 - Useful Plants of Bangladesh. ShituTuni Book House, Comilla, Bangladesh.

Diamantopoulou P., Voudouris K. 2008 - Optimization of water resources management using SWOT analysis: the case of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece. Environmental Geology 54 (1): 197–211.

Diputacion de Granada 2011 - Analysis on Water Management in High Genil Lower River Basin, Waterincore, 1G-MED08-515 [Online]. Available: [2020, June 24]

Flory A.R., Kumar S., Stohlgren T.J., Cryan P.M. 2012 - Environmental conditions associated with bat white nose syndrome mortality in the north-eastern United States. Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 680–689.

Forest Research 2020 [Online]. Available: [2020, June 25]

Fredericksen T.S., Mostacedo B. 2000 - Regeneration of timber species following selection logging in a Bolivian tropical dry forest. Forest Ecology and Management 131: 47– 55.

Gain P. 2005 - BangladesherBiponno Bon, (in Bengali), SEHD, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Ganguly A. 2019 - Threat to forests in focus at meet in Ranchi.’ The Telegraph. 21 September. [Online]. Available : [2020, June 19]

Garkoti S.C., Zobel D.B., Singh S.P. 2003 - Variation in drought response of Sal (Shorea robusta) seedlings. Tree Physiology 23: 1021-1030. https//

Gautam K.H., Devoe N.N. 2006 - Ecological and anthropogenic niches of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) forest and prospects for multiple-product forest management - a review. Forestry 79: 81–101.

Gautam M.K., Tripathi A.K., Manhas R.K. 2007 - Indicator species for Natural Regeneration of Shorea robusta (Gaertn. f.). Current Science 93: 1359-1361.

Gautam M.K., Manhas R.K., Tripathi A.K. 2014 - Plant species diversity in unmanaged moist deciduous forest in north India. Current Science 106: 277-291.

Gbadamosi A.E., Oni O. 2005 - Macropropagation of an endangered medicinal plant, Enantia chlorantha Oliv. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 31(2): 78.

Giri A., Aryal B., Bhattarai B., Ghimire S.K., Shrestha K.K., Jha P.K. 1999 - Vegetation composition, biomass production and regeneration in Shorea robusta forests in the Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. Nepal Journal of Science and technology 1(1).

Griffith A.L., Gupta R.S. 1943 - The determination of the characteristics of soil suitable for sal (Shorea robusta). Indian Forest Bulletin Silviculture 138.

Gurel E., Tat M. 2017 - SWOT Analysis: A Theoretical review. The Journal of International Social Research 10.

Gyaltshen D., Wangda P., Suberi B. 2014 - Structure and Composition of the Natural Sal (Shore robusta Gaertner f.) Forest, Gomtu, Southern Bhutan. Bhutan Journal of Natural Resources & Development 1(1): 1-10. doi:10.17102/cnr.2014.01

Haque N. 2007. Depletion of Tropical Forests with Particular Reference to Bangladesh.

Harrison S.R., Herbohn J.L. 2004 - SWOT analysis of forest industry development in north Queensland. In: Proceedings of the North Queensland Forest Industry Development Workshop, Cairns, Australia.

Hausler A., Scherer-Lorenzen M. 2001 - Sustainable forest management in Germany: the ecosystem approach of the biodiversity convention reconsidered. Federal Ministry of Environment, Germany.

Hole R.S. 1921 - Regeneration of Sal (Shorea robusta) forests. A study in economic ecology. Indian Forester (Old series), Silviculture 8.

ISFR 2015 – India State of Forest Report. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change. ISBN 97881929285-2-4.

Islam K.K., Sato N. 2012 - Participatory forestry in Bangladesh: has it helped to increase the livelihoods of Sal forests-dependent people? Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 74 (2): 89-101.

Jackson J.K. 1994 - Manual of Afforestation in Nepal. 2nd edition, Forest Survey and Research Division, Babarmahal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Jamaluddin 1991. Status of Polyporus shoreae causing root rot in dry wet sal forest. Journal of Tropical forestry 7: 342-344.

Joshi K.C., Kulkarni N., Roychoudhury N., Yousuf M., Sambath S. 2002 - Population dynamics and behaviour of sal heartwood borer and its control measures. Implementation Completion Report, Project ID no. TFRI-97/Ento-06.

Kadambi K., Dabral S.N. 1954 - Air layering in forestry practice. Indian Forester 80 (11): 721-724.

Kamyo T., Asanok L. 2020 - Modeling habitat suitability of Dipterocarpus alatus (Dipterocarpaceae) using MaxEnt along the Chao Phraya River in Central Thailand. Forest Science and Technology 16 (1): 1-7.

Kazana V., Kazaklis A., Stamatiou C., Koutsona P., Boutsimea A., Fotakis, D. 2015 - SWOT analysis for sustainable forest policy and management: a Greek case study. International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences 7 (1): 32-50.

Kedharnath S. 1984 - Forest tree improvement in India. In: Proceedings of Plant Sciences 93 (3): 401-412.

Khare P.K., Yadav V.K., Mishra G.P. 1987 - Collection, germination, and storage of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. seeds. In: Proceedings of the IUFRO international symposium on forest seed problems in Africa. Dept. of Forest Genetics. Swedish Agriculture University, S-90183, Umea, Sweden: 154-158.

Kulkarni N., Tripathi S., Joshi K.C. 2004 - Kairomonal activity of compounds isolated from bark of Sal (Shorea robusta Gaert. f.) for attracting the sal heartwood borer, Hoplocerambyx spinicoris newman (Coleopteria: Cerambycidae). International Journal of Forest 27 (3): 321-325.

Kumar M.N., Tirkey J., Rai S. 2018. Effective culture medium and combination of phytohormones for in vitro nodal culture of Shorea robusta Roxb. ex Gaertn. Indian journal of experimental biology 56 (12): 914-921.

Kumar Y. 2018 - Sal forests shrinking due to climate change: Study.’ The Times of India. 3 June. [Online]. Available: [2020, June 19]

Kupferschmid A.D., Brang P., Schönenberger W., Bugmann H. 2006 - Predicting tree regeneration in Picea abies snag stands. European Journal of Forest Research 125 (2): 163-179.

Kurttila M., Pesonen M., Kangaz J. and Kajanus M. 2000 - Utilizing the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in SWOT analysis – a hybrid method and its application to a forest-certification case. Forest Policy and Economics 1 (1): 41–52.

Lawes M.J., Joubert R., Griffiths M.E., Boudreau S., Chapman C.A. 2007 - The effect of the spatial scale of recruitment on tree diversity in afromontane forest fragments. Biological Conservation 139: 447–456.

Maithani G.P., Sharma D.C., Bahuguna V.K. 1989 - Problems of Sal forests-an Analysis. Indian Forester 115: 513-525.

Malla R., Acharya B.K. 2018 - Natural regeneration potential and growth of degraded Shorea robusta Gaertn.f. forest in Terai region of Nepal. Banko Janakari 28.

Malmström C.M., Raffa K.F. 2000 - Biotic disturbance agents in the boreal forest: considerations for vegetation change models. Global Change Biology 6 (S1): 35-48.

McKinney M.L. 2002 - Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience 52 (10): 883–890.

Mehrotra A. 2001 - Cylindrocladium leaf spotting and blight, a new disease of Shorea robusta. Indian Journal of Forestry 10: 267-274.

Mishra A., Sharma C.M., Sharma S.D., Baduni N.P. 2000 - Effect of aspect on the structure of vegetation community of moist Bhabar and Tarai Shorea robusta forest in Central Himalaya. Indian Forester 126 (6): 634-642.

Mishra B.K., Garkoti S.C. 2015 - Species Diversity and Regeneration Status in Sabaiya Collaborative Forest, Nepal. In: Proceeding of Conference 99th ESA Annual Convention.

Niyogi D.G. 2018 - Inherent faith runs deep.

Orwa C., Mutua A., Kindt R., Jamnadass R., Simons A. 2009 - Agroforestry Tree Database: A tree reference and selection guide. Version 4.0, Nairobi, Kenya.

Pande D.C. 1960 - Progress of the Sal natural regeneration in Uttar Pradesh under the normal prescriptions of the working plans. In: Proceedings of the Ninth Silvicultural Conference, Dehra Dun, December 7th and December 10th to December 19th, 1956. (No. Pt. I: 91- 96).

Pande P.K. 1999 - Comparative vegetation analysis and Sal (Shorea robusta) regeneration in relation to their disturbance magnitude in some Sal forest. Tropical Ecology 40: 51-61.

Pandey M., Geburek T. 2009 - Brief report on Successful cross-amplification of Shorea microsatellites reveals genetic variation in the tropical tree, Shorea robusta Gaertn. Hereditas 146: 29-32.

Pandey S., Singh S., Yusuf M., Pandey A. 2020 - Current challenges in the management of forest insect pests and diseases. Current Science 118 (1): 17.

Parkhey S., Naithani S.C., Keshavkant S. 2012 - ROS production and lipid catabolism in desiccating Shorea robusta seeds during aging. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 57: 261-267.

Pattanaik S., Dash A., Mishra R.K., Nayak P.K., Mohanty R.C. 2015 - Seed germination and seedling survival percentage of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. in buffer areas of Similipal biosphere reserve, Odisha, India. Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography 5 (1): 1.

Paudyal B.K. 2012 - Regeneration, growth of hill Sal and plant diversity in community forest: A case study from Pragatisil community forest in Kaski district, Western Nepal. Banko Janakari 23: 37-43.

Pearson R.G. 2007 - Species’ distribution modeling for conservation educators and practitioners. Synthesis. American Museum of Natural History 50: 54-89.

Piggin C. 2003 - Working group SWOT analysis on agricultural development in East Timor. ACIAR Proceedings 113: 159–162.

Phillips S.J., Anderson R.P., Schapire R.E. 2006 - Maximum entropy modelling of species geographic distributions. Eco. Mod. 190: 231–259.

Pukkala T., Kolström T. 1992 - A stochastic spatial regeneration model for Pinus sylvestris. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 7 (1-4): 377-385.

Puri G.S. 1960 - Indian Forest Ecology Vol. I. Oxford Book and Stationary Company, New Delhi and Calcutta. 318 p.

Purohit A.N., Sharma M.M., Thapliyal R.C. 1982 - Effect of storage temperatures on the viability of sal (Shorea robusta) and talura (Shorea talura) seed. Forest Science 28 (3): 526-530.

Qureshi I.M., Srivastava P.B.L., Bora N.K.S. 1968 - Sal (Shorea robusta) natural regeneration de-novo. Effect of soil working & weeding on the growth & establishment. Indian Forester 94: 591-598.

Rahman M. M., Rahman M. M., Guogang Z., Islam K. S. 2010 - A Review of the Present Threats to Tropical Moist Deciduous Sal (Shorea Robusta) Forest Ecosystem of Central Bangladesh. Tropical Conservation Science 3 (1): 90–102. doi:10.1177/194008291000300108

Ramirez-Marcial N., Gonzalez-Espinosa M., Williams-Linera G. 2001 - Anthropogenic disturbance and tree diversity in montane rain forests in Chiapas, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 154: 311–326.

Rathore C.S. 2000 - Sal borer problems in Indian Sal forests.

Rautiainen O. 1999 - Spatial yield model for Shorea robusta in Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management 119: 151-162.

Rautiainen O., Suoheimo J. 1997 - Natural regeneration potential and early development of Shorea robusta Gaertn.f. forest after regeneration felling in the Bhabar-Terai zone in Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management 92: 243-251.

United Nations, 1987. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Available: [2020, June 29]

Richards P.W. 1971 - Some problems of Nature Conservation in the Tropics. Bulletin du Jardin botanique national de Belgique 41: 173-187.

Rose Jr C.E., Hall D.B., Shive, B.D., Clutter M.L., Borders B. 2006 - A multilevel approach to individual tree survival prediction. Forest Science 52 (1): 31-43.

Roy S. 2006 - Comparative Studies on the Survival and Growth of Seedlings and in Vitro-Raised Plants of Shorea robusta and Dipterocarpus turbinatus. Plantation Technology in Tropical Forest Science, Springer, Tokyo: 123-130.

Roychoudhury N. 2015 - Insect Pests of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.: An Update. Indian Journal of Forestry 38 (4): 1-10.

Roychoudhury N., Gupta D.K., Mishra R.K. 2018 - Role of Climatic Factors in Emergence of Sal Heartwood Borer, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newman, in Dindori Forest Division, Madhya Pradesh and its Management. Indian Journal of Forestry 41 (2):149-159.

Roychoudhury N., Sambath S. and Joshi K.C. 2004 - Girth class of sal trees prone to the attack of heartwood borer, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Indian Forester 130 (12): 1403-1409.

Roychoudhury N., Singh R.B., Das A.K. 2017 - Occurrence of Sal Heartwood Borer, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in East Baihar Forest. Indian Journal of Forestry 40 (1): 63-67.

Ruotsalainen S. 2014 - Increased forest production through forest tree breeding. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 29 (4): 333-344.

Sagar R., Raghubanshi A.S., Singh J.S. 2003 - Tree species composition, dispersion and diversity along a disturbance gradient in a dry tropical forest region of India. Forest Ecology Management 186: 61–71.

Sah S. 2000 - Management Options for Sal Forests (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) in the Nepal Terai. Selbyana 21: 112-117.

Sahu K., Naithani S.C. 2005 - Low temperature induced alteration in growth pattern and mortality in young sal (Shorea robusta) seedlings. Journal of Tree Sciences 24 (2): 69-78.

Sapkota I., Tigabu M, Oden P.C. 2009a - Spatial distribution, advanced regeneration and stand structure of Nepalese Sal (Shorea robusta) forests subject to disturbances of different intensities. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1966-1975.

Sapkota I., Tigabu M., Oden P.C. 2009b - Species diversity and regeneration of old-growth seasonally dry Shorea robusta forests following gap formation. Journal of Forestry Research 20: 7−14.

Sapkota I., Tigabu M., Oden P.C. 2009c - Tree diversity and regeneration of community-managed Bhabar lowland and Hill Sal forests in central region of Nepal. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques: 57-68.

Sayer J., Maginnis S., Laurie M. 2007 - Forests in landscapes: ecosystem approaches to sustainability. Routledge.

Seth S.K. 1967 – Discussions on recent trends in techniques of natural and artificial regeneration of Sal. In: Proceedings of XIth Silvicultural conference 1: 62-73.

Seth S.K., Bhatnagar H.P. 1960 - Inter-relation between mineral constituents of foliage, soil properties, site quality and regeneration status in some Shorea robusta forests. Indian Forester 86: 590-601.

Shah R., Joshi S.K. 2008 - Working plan (2008-09 to 2017-18) Nainital Forest Division. Uttarakhand. Chief Conservator of Forests, Uttarakhand, Nainital.

Sharma J.S., Dabral B.G., Singh K. 1985 - Edaphic and microclimatological studies with reference to regeneration of Sal (Shorea robusta). Indian Forester 111: 396-409.

Sharma M., Kumar M., Sharma S., Singh K.P. 2019 - Morphological anomaly in Shorea robusta Gaertn. Seeds in Uttarakhand, India. Indian Forester 145 (5): 492-493.

Singh A.K., Kumar V.K., Singh J. 1987 - Forest Resource, Economy and Environment, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.

Singh G. 2018 - Mining devours Saranda, the largest sal forest in Asia. Mongabay. 5 December. [Online] Available: [2020, June19]

Singh M., Sonkusale S., Niratker C.H., Shukla P. 2014 - Micropropagation of Shorea robusta: an economically important woody plant. Journal of Forest Science 60 (2):70-74.

Sinha A.R., Upadhyaya A.K. 2012 - Working plan (2011-12 to 2020-21) Champawat Forest Division. Uttarakhand. Chief Conservator of Forests, Uttarakhand, Haldwani.

Soni R.K., Dixit V., Irchhaiya R., Singh H. 2013 - A Review Update On Shorea robusta Gaertn f. (sal). Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics 3 (6): 127-132.

Srivastava P., Vasistha H.B., Birman S. 2016 - Floral diversity and structure of protected and unprotected Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) Forest: a comparative study of Doon Valley. Ecology Environment and Conservation 22.

Srivastava P.B.L. 1972 - Competitive potential of Sal seedlings. Indian Forester 98 (8).

Srivastava P., Vasistha H.B. 2017 - Impact of Urbanization on Natural Regeneration of Shorea robusta in Doon Valley (India). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6: 1590-1600.

Subedi V.R., Bhatta K.D., Poudel I.P., Bhattarai P. 2018. Application of silvicultural system, yield regulation and thinning practices in natural forests: Case study from western Terai. Banko Janakari 92-97.

Suh J., Emtage N.F. 2004 - Identification of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of the Community-Based Forest Management Program. ACIAR Smallholder Forestry Project Report: 159–170.

Surabhi G.K., Mohanty S., Meher R.K., Mukherjee A.K., Vemireddy L.N.R. 2017. Assessment of genetic diversity in Shorea robusta: an economically important tropical tree species. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology 5(02): 110-117.

Stohlgren T.J., Ma P., Kumar S., Rocca M., Morisette J.T., Jarnevich C.S., Benson N. 2010 - Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species. Risk Anal. 30: 224–235.

Swets J.A. 1988 - Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science. 240: 1285–1293.

Tapwal A., Kumar R., Borah D. 2015. Effect of mycorrhizal inoculations on the growth of Shorea robusta seedlings. Nusantara bioscience 7(1).

Tewari D.N. 1995 - A Monograph on Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.). International Book Distributors, Dehradun.

Timilsina N., Ross M.S., Heinen J.T. 2007 - A community analysis of sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the western Terai of Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management 241(1–3): 223-234. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.01.012.

Tiwari G.P.K., Tadele K., Aramde F., Tiwari S.C. 2010 - Community structure and regeneration potential of Shorea robusta forest in subtropical submontane zone of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Nature and Science 8 (1): 70-74.

Tompsett P.B. 1985 - The influence of moisture content and storage temperature on the viability of Shorea almon, Shorea robusta, and Shorea roxburghii seed. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15 (6):1074-1079.

Tree dieback identification and management guide. Available: [2020, June 20]

Troup R.S. 1921 - The Silviculture of Indian Trees (Vol. 1). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Troup R.S. 1986 - The Silviculture of Indian Trees (No. 635.950954 T861s). Dehra Dun: International Book Distributors.

Tyagi J.V., Kumar R., Srivastava S.L., Singh R.D. 2011 - Effect of micro-environmental factors on natural regeneration of Sal (Shorea robusta). Journal of Forestry Research 22: 543-550.

UCANR 2006.

Utkarsh G. 1998 - The Sal borer epidemic on Madhya Pradesh questions in ecology and politics; decision, Centre for Ecological Sciences. Indian Institute of Science, Banglore, India.

Uttarakhand Forest Department 2020, Kanasar Forest Rest House. [Online]. Available: [2020, June 25]

Verma V.P.S., Sharma B.K. 1978 - Studies on production and collection of Sal (Shorea robusta) seeds. Indian Forester 104: 414-420.

Webb E.L., Sah R.N. 2003 - Structure and diversity of natural and managed sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) forest in the Terai of Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management 176 (1-3): 337-353.

Wong J. 2005- Robinwood: SWOT Analysis of the forestry sector in Wales, Wild Resources Ltd, Bangor.

Worldometer. [Online] Available: [2020, June 22]

Yadav J.S.P. 1966 - Soil studies in Sal forest of Dehra Dun division. Indian Forester 92: 240-252.

Young M.D. 1992 - Sustainable investment and resource use: equity, environmental integrity and economic efficiency.

Copyright (c) 2020 Garima Mishra, Rajendra K. Meena, Shailesh Pandey, Rama Kant, Maneesh S. Bhandari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

All texts reported in and all materials directly downloadable from this page are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.